Summary: L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012].

glutamate metabotropic receptor 4MIM:604100Ensembl:ENSG00000124493HGNC:HGNC:4596PA289936p21.31

GO terms in GRM4

Term TypeEvidence TypeGO Term IDGO Des.
CCTASGO:0005886plasma membrane
CCIBAGO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane
CCIDAGO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane
CCIDAGO:0031410cytoplasmic vesicle
CCIBAGO:0042734presynaptic membrane
BPIDAGO:0000187activation of MAPK activity
BPTASGO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
BPIBAGO:0007196adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway
BPIMPGO:0007196adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway
BPIBAGO:0007216G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway
BPTASGO:0007268chemical synaptic transmission
BPTASGO:0007269neurotransmitter secretion
BPIEPGO:0043410positive regulation of MAPK cascade
BPTASGO:0043523regulation of neuron apoptotic process
BPIBAGO:0051966regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic
MFIBAGO:0001642group III metabotropic glutamate receptor activity
MFIMPGO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity
MFIBAGO:0008066glutamate receptor activity
MFIMPGO:0008066glutamate receptor activity

Gene expression in normal tissue: GRM4

Gene-model tissue-cancer distribution: Bubble Plot

Gene-drug pathway distribution

Pathways in GRM4

DatabasePathway IDPathway Des.
reactomeR-HSA-162582Signal Transduction
reactomeR-HSA-372790Signaling by GPCR
reactomeR-HSA-388396GPCR downstream signalling
reactomeR-HSA-418594G alpha (i) signalling events
reactomeR-HSA-420499Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)
reactomeR-HSA-500792GPCR ligand binding
kegghsa04072Phospholipase D signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
kegghsa04080Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
kegghsa04724Glutamatergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
kegghsa04742Taste transduction - Homo sapiens (human)
wikipathwaysWP501GPCRs, Class C Metabotropic glutamate, pheromone

Gene-Drug: Aster Plot

Drug IDDrug NameModel Num.

Gene in drug-gene network: Network Plot

Gene-drug targets distribution

Gene Structure: PDB

Models in GRM4